Human Impact on Marine Life and Global Warming

By: Melissa Santiago

Human Impact to Marine Life and Global Warming

Some of the main threat to marine life are ocean acidification, climate change, and global warming.  But humans pose a great on our marine life as well, whether it is overfishing or by the garbage which we dispose of in our seas.

According to the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (2018), “each year, billions of pounds of trash and other pollutants enter the ocean”. Marine debris injures and kills marine life, interferes with navigation safety, and poses a threat to human health. Our oceans and waterways are polluted with a wide variety of marine debris, ranging from tiny microplastics to derelict fishing gear and abandoned vessels. The article speaks about how too much nutrients can cause alga bloom which is an overgrowth of algae. This is caused by nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which are needed for plant growth.

 Humans have engaged in activities that produce black carbon particles. Black carbon particles are released into the atmosphere in the form of smoke that is produced by cooking with solid animal fuels, burning trees, and spewing diesel exhaust. When black carbon particles reach the atmosphere, they form a heat-absorbing layer that causes temperatures to rise. Raindrops tend to form around black carbon particles in the atmosphere, and when they fall to the ground, they absorb heat there too, thus magnifying their warming effect.

   Fertilizers used in farming have had far-reaching effects. Their use has injected vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous into regional ecosystems.120 million tons of nitrogen are removed from the atmosphere each year and 20 million tons of phosphorous is mined from the ground in order to produce fertilizer to be used for farming. These practices add a tremendous amount of nitrogen and phosphorus to the biosphere than would occur naturally. Runoff from farmland often carries large amounts of fertilizer into rivers and streams that eventually drain into the sea. All of this fertilizer runoff creates rapidly expanding marine dead zones

Technological development has led to the invention of new materials, such as plastics, that were previously unknown to the planet. Many of these new materials are made up of chemical compounds that can remain active in the environment for thousands of years and have lasting impacts on the delicate regulatory cycles and ecosystems. At high concentrations, these chemicals can disrupt animal endocrine systems, alter reproduction patterns, and cause cancer. Organic pollutants and plastic-derived endocrine disruptors have been discovered in low concentrations all over the world, even in areas where they’ve never been used, such as Antarctica and at the bottom of the oceans.

According to Current Biology Magazine’s ‘Not so many fish in the sea’(2017),  “The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), which is under the purview of the United Nations, estimates that in 1950 the amount of fish landed worldwide amounted to 19.3 million tons. That figure had increased to 93.4 million tons in 2014, meaning we are pulling about five times as much fish out of our rivers, lakes, and oceans”.

      The long-lived, late reproducing, and low fecundity life histories of many deep-sea organisms increase vulnerability to multiple human pressures and global climate change. Low rates of replacement result in extreme sensitivity to fishing pressure, and weak currents and the absence of wave action result in sometimes fragile organisms that are easily damaged by bottom-contact fishing gear, which now penetrates to thousands of meters depth. Richard (2010) noted, “Deepwater Horizon oil spill, also called Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in history, caused by an April 20, 2010”. The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico clearly demonstrated not only the increasing range of environments in which extraction occurs but also the ecological aftermath cations of major blowouts for deep-sea fauna. Deepsea mining, while still in its infancy, necessarily destroys habitat, whether it concerns extracting polymetallic sulfides at hydrothermal vent chimneys, cobalt-rich crusts from seamounts, or manganese nodules from abyssal sediments. But the global footprint of climate change represents the single greatest concern regarding human impacts on ocean environments, largely through indirect effects.

  Most deep-sea environments depend largely on surface production, climate change effects on surface processes will alter deep-sea ecosystems globally with evidence of change already happening. Such changes can significantly affect the growth rates, survival, and recruitment of deep-sea organisms with severe consequences for the potential recovery of deep-sea assemblages compounded by other effects of human activities listed above. These consequences can compromise the success of restoration actions in deep-sea ecosystems affected by different anthropogenic pressures. At the same time, the projected increase in temperature and decrease in oxygen and pH in the deep ocean under present climate change scenarios could have additional detrimental impacts on the metabolism of deep-sea organisms, which appear more sensitive than shallow-water counterparts to any change in environmental conditions. The response of deep-sea life to global changes will depend on the ability of these organisms to adapt to altered conditions and to maintain their biological interactions with other living components. This is the reason  we should make a special effort to expand the knowledge of their biology, from their physiology and symbiotic interactions to the factors controlling food webs and the dispersal of deep-sea organisms. The additive effects of human pressures and global climate change are still almost completely unknown and can be addressed only by increasing knowledge on basic and system biology of deep-sea ecosystems and through a better understanding of the complex biological interactions that enable their efficient functioning.

Ocean Acidification

By: Melissa Santiago

Ocean Acidification

  The issue of ocean acidification is simple chemistry. There are two important things to when carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater. First, the pH of seawater water gets lower as it becomes more acidic. Second, this process binds up carbonate ions and makes them less abundant ions that corals, oysters, mussels, and many other shelled organisms need to build shells and skeletons. When water (H2O) and CO2 mix, they combine to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid is weak compared to some of the well-known acids that break down solids, such as hydrochloric acid (the main ingredient in gastric acid, which digests food in your stomach) and sulfuric acid (the main ingredient in car batteries, which can burn your skin with just a drop). The weaker carbonic acid may not act as quickly, but it works the same way as all acids: it releases hydrogen ions (H+), which bond with other molecules in the area. The lower the pH, the more acidic the solution. It’s hard to say what the level of impact would mean for different organisms; a 10% rate could be no problem for some species, but for other more sensitive species it could mean one step closer to local extinction, ( Azevedo, De Schryver, Hendriks, Huijbregts, 2015).

   Like calcium ions, hydrogen ions tend to bond with carbonate but they have a greater attraction to carbonate than calcium. When a hydrogen bond with carbonate, a bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) is formed. Shell-building organisms can’t extract the carbonate ion they need from bicarbonate, preventing them from using that carbonate to grow a new shell. In this way, the hydrogen essentially binds up the carbonate ions, making it harder for shelled animals to build their homes. Even if animals are able to build skeletons in more acidic water, they may have to spend more energy to do so, taking away resources from other activities like reproduction. If there are too many hydrogen ions around and not enough molecules for them to bond with, they can even begin breaking existing calcium carbonate molecules apart, dissolving shells that already exist.

   “The ocean has to be one of the things greatly affected by global warming and climate change since it has to take up about 50% of anthropogenic CO2”(Wikipedia, 2018). This affects the level of oxygen thus the life of organisms in the ecosystem contaminated. The increase in the level of CO2 is a factor that contributes to the acidity of the ocean. The rise in acidity affects the production of organisms shrimps and corals by a process called calcifications. Corals reefs provide an ecosystem for one-quarter of marine life. The death of coral reefs leads to fish migration. Fish migration is the moving from one part of a water body to another. There are many factors which contribute to fish migration but the rise in the temperature of the sea water

due to global warming has now become one. This migration would then affect fishermen and everyone who benefits from marine life directly or indirectly.

  Azevedo (2015) explain, “Calcifying species are indispensable for ecosystems worldwide: they provide nursery habitats for fish, food for marine predators, and natural defenses for storms and erosion. These species are also particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification triggered by increased fossil fuel emissions”.

  Fossil fuel emissions are the gases that are spewed out of most cars, airplanes, power plants, and factories that are burning fossil fuels (coal, oil or gas).  Since the industrial revolution, fossil fuel consumption has risen exponentially to create many climates change-related issues, including ocean acidification. Deforestation is a two-fold issue.  Burning down forests is similar to burning fossil fuels, it emits a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Forests are important because large expanses of plant life (even in the ocean) are known to be ‘carbon sinks’,  taking in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Historically, carbon dioxide levels have been balanced; the CO2 being produced was, in turn, being absorbed. Deforestation not only creates more CO2, but it also destroys one of the very things that helps absorb it.

For the coming week I plan on doing research on how human actives are affecting our Home.


Climate Change

By: Melissa Santiago

For the fourth week working on Marine Life and Global Warming I mainly focus on finding more information on the different factors that affect our marine life and also global warming.

Oceans cover about 70% of the earth and support an incredible variety of life, including the world’s largest mammal, the Blue Whale. The oceans are a significant source of oxygen for our planet and are instrumental in the capture and storage of carbon dioxide. Marine species provide important ecosystem services such as the provision of food, medicines, and livelihoods. They also support tourism and recreational activities around the world. This is all changing due to the impact that climate change, ocean acidification, and human activities are having on marine life and global warming.

Climate Change

   Climate change is the increasing changes in the measures of climate over a long period of time. It includes precipitation, temperature and wind pattern. Some of the factors that affect climate change are the burning of fossil fuels and converting of land from forests to agriculture. The dominant product of fossil fuel combustion is carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gas is a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other substances are climate forcers because they force or push the climate towards being warmer or cooler. They do this by affecting the flow of energy coming into and leaving the earth’s climate system. Small changes in the sun’s energy that reaches the earth can cause some climate change. But what if instead of this climate changes occurring in a long period of time it occurs in a few years how will the things of this planet be able to adapt? To answer this question, life on this planet is not responding too well to this sudden change in the climate. Some species may not adapt fast enough, which might lead to their extinction.

 The change of the location of areas with high primary productivity  is caused by change in temperatures. Primary producers, such as plankton, are the main food source for marine mammals such as some whales. Species migration will, therefore, be directly affected by locations of high primary productivity. Water temperature changes also affect ocean turbulence, which has a major impact on the dispersion of plankton and other primary producers. Due to global warming and increased glacier melt, Thermohaline circulation patterns may be altered by increasing amounts of freshwater released into oceans and, therefore, changing ocean salinity. Thermohaline circulation is responsible for bringing up cold, nutrient-rich water from the depths of the ocean, a process known as upwelling (US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic, and Atmospheric Administration, 2013).

   Polar bears are one of the marine mammals that are most at risk due to climate change (Alastair, 2019). The biggest issue for polar bears related to climate change is the melting of ice as a result of increasing temperatures. When the ice melts, polar bears lose their habitat and food sources. Although polar bears have been known to eat more than 80 species of animals, most of their diet consists of seals, which are also endangered by global warming. There has been an increasing number of polar bear drownings because they become exhausted by having to swim farther to find ice or prey. Marine mammals have evolved to live in oceans, but climate change is affecting their natural habitat (Wikipedia, 2019). The rate at which climate change is occurring is too fast and doesn’t allow the animal time for them to evolve; adapt to the changes in the environment.Short-term climate change impacts on aquaculture can include losses of production and infrastructure arising from extreme events such as floods, increased risks of diseases, parasites and harmful algal blooms. Long-term impacts can include reduced availability of wild seed as well as reduced precipitation leading to increasing competition for freshwater. “World Bank estimates suggest the annual damage to countries within the Caribbean community caused by climate change will rise to US$11 billion by 2080 – a staggering 11 percent of the region’s collective GDP” (Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, 2017).  One of the many impacts of climate change is on food safety, for example through changes in the growth rates of pathogenic marine bacteria, or on the incidence of parasites and food-borne viruses. Climate

For the fifth week i plan on working on
Ocean acidification. How it’s affect the Caribbean region.

What is Fish migration?

B. Melissa E. Santiago

Topic:Marine Life and Global Warming

For the past week I mainly focused on doing research.I tried to figure out which digital tool would be best to use for the project so that it can have the effects I’m looking for.I also got the names of some fishermen which I can interview to find out the direct impact of the change in marine life and how it is affecting them.

From websites such as https://www.caribbeanclimate.bz/the-heat-is-on-global-warming-and-the-caribbean/

and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisheries_and_climate_change i learnt that  global warming seems to be increasing with each season that passes. The Caribbean islands are vulnerable since we mainly depend on marine life for our source of food and income. But we also have to note that the change in marine life is not only due to global warming but also human activities such as over-fishing. It is said that the ocean has being one of the things greatly affected since it had taken up about 50% of anthropogenic CO2 . This affect the level of oxygen thus the life of organisms in the ecosystem contaminated. The  increase in the level of CO2 is a factor that contributes to the acidity of the ocean. The rise in acidity affects the production of organisms shrimps and corals by a process called  calcification. Corals reefs provide an ecosystem for one quarter of marine life. The death of coral reefs lead to fish migration. Fish migration is the moving from one part of a water body to another. There are many factors which contribute to fish migration but the rise in the temperature of the sea water due to global warming has now become one. This migration would then affect fishermen and everyone who benefits from this marine life directly or indirectly.

Throughout my week of research most of the information has included the caribbean region and a few spoke about the larger islands but one of my main issues is getting information oN Dominica’s marine life..

This coming week I plan on interviews a few individuals on how global warming affects them and their opinion on how we can help decrease it rate.

Humans Impact on The Fish Population

By Melissa Santiago

For the third week of working on this project, I tried to gather more information on the size of the fishes being caught in Dominica. Since we know that global warming is not the only thing having an effect on the fish population and all the fishes wouldn’t just decide one day that they all migrate together.  After asking numerous persons (consumers) from all around Dominica about what fishes they were able to get, and most only mentioned ‘balou’.

On Saturday 20, April 2019, I went to mero beach  located on the west of the island and I noticed that there was a lot of debris in the water. The water was also dirty but that would be caused by the river that is located near where I was. We stop in Colihaut when we saw a man selling fish but the majority of the fish were too small. The fisherman said that that was his best catch for the day and that the fishes very bigger than what he had gotten the day before. The images below are pictures that I took of the fish. This shows that the fishes are being caught went they are too young not giving them enough time to mature and reproduce. This causes these species to have a decline in population and a problem to even increase in numbers if they don’t get enough time to produce the next generation of its kind.

An article by Michael Tennesen mentions that “old fish tend to be the largest and produce the most offspring. They are also the most flexible in their behavior, so they can adapt better to environmental changes. For instance, the older fish tend to spawn in different times and locations.” Thus meaning that the older fishes can more adapt to the changes cause to our oceans by global warming and the other threats such as ocean acidification, climate change that affect the ocean and marine life. Their population would not be too affected by the changes in their environment.  But if we keep catching this fishes while they are so small we will sooner than later cause a great change in their population. This can lead to the extinction of different species both because of over fishing and the size of the fish we catch. According to Current Biology Magazine’s ‘Not so many fish in the sea’ “The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), which is under the purview of the United Nations, estimates that in 1950 the amount of fish landed worldwide amounted to 19.3 million tons. That figure had increased to 93.4 million tons in 2014, meaning we are pulling about five times as much fish out of our rivers, lakes, and oceans”. This is proof that we are overfishing and soon we will not have any fishes left unless we change this.

Some of the main threat to marine life are ocean acidification, climate change, and global warming.  But humans pose a great on our marine life as well, whether it is overfishing or by the garbage which we dispose of in our seas. According to the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration “each year, billions of pounds of trash and other pollutants enter the ocean”. Marine debris injures and kills marine life, interferes with navigation safety, and poses a threat to human health. Our oceans and waterways are polluted with a wide variety of marine debris, ranging from tiny microplastics to derelict fishing gear and abandoned vessels. The article speaks about how too much nutrients can cause alga bloom which is an overgrowth of algae. This is caused by nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which are needed for plant growth.

Our planet, Our problem.


B. Melissa E. Santiago

For the second week focused on our project, I interviewed three individuals who are affected by the effect that global warming is having on our marine life. These individuals all have a different lifestyle and all are impacted in different ways by this.

The first individual I spoke to was a fisherman from Portsmouth. One of the things I learned from him was that there is a difficulty in catching fishes other than “bala-w”. That wasn’t the only concerning thing but also the size of the fish being caught. This fish can be found everywhere because of it demand due to its cheap price; at the moment it’s being over fished which can lead to a fast decrease in its population. He spoke about how they have to travel greater distances to catch fishes but with the boats local fishermen here have its very dangerous.

Fg.1. Balaw

The second individual I interview was a hotel and restaurant owner who spoke about the struggle to get a variety of fish which his customers are accustomed to being served at his restaurant. He told me that he hasn’t been able to get any lobsters for about two weeks now. This being one of his best-sellers and a tourist favorite.we also spoke about the effect that hurricane Maria and tropical storm Erica had on his business and how much fish he managed to get around that time. He said he was able to get more fishes after maria than he is now

The third person I spoke to is a landlord at Picard. Who consumes mainly fish and has also been struggling to get it. This individual isn’t benefited economically by marine life but is still being affected by the changes our marine life is having.

I interviewed this person to show that not only are fishermen and coastal region inhabitant being affected by the effect that global warming is having but everyone in our society. This is our problem, and we all have to try to find a way to stop harming our planet so much. Whether we affect it when we use too many fertilizers which then run off to our oceans when rainfall and contaminates our waters or by simply turning on our A.C when we could go outside and enjoy the breeze. This is our planet making these issues our problem and furthermore, our children’s problem that We have created. What Marine life will they enjoy if we destroy all?

I believe we need to educate people more about the problem that global warming is causing and how we can help stop or at least slow it down. This information I found when searching about Dominica’s marine life and what is affecting it.

” There are few things we have a lot of in Dominica: sunshine, salt water and more recently sargassum seaweed and driftwood. Sargassum seaweed seems to be building up in the area and impacting our nesting beaches. The influx of seaweed and is likely caused by climate change shifting the ocean’s currents, sending offshore algal blooms from Brazil (caused by nutrient runoff) into Caribbean waters. The beaches last nesting season were inundated with sargassum, making it very difficult for both nesting turtles to build a nests and for hatchlings to emerge from their nests after hatching.”
https://openexplorer.nationalgeographic.com/expedition/dominicaturtles

This is a story about five men who were charged for slaughtering a
“a young female nesting leatherback sea turtle” in 2010.This shows that there are rules put in place to protect our endangered species.

http://dominicanewsonline.com/news/homepage/news/crime-court-law/man-charged-for-slaughtered-turtle/

https://openexplorer.nationalgeographic.com/expedition/dominicaturtles

A World Without a Future

 By Melissa Santiago

 What will the end of the world look like? Is it going to be as shabby and disturbing as it is in ‘Children of Men’? Children of Men is a dystopian thriller base on the future of humanity, directed by Alfonso Cuaron: a convincing realization of London in the year 2027 in which terrorist bombs have become a norm.

     Children of Men has become one of my favorite Post Apocalyptic films with that depressed gray smokey color palette. The opening scene alone gives the views the perfect set up when in a crowded cafe people watch this news report about the youngest person on the planet dying. One of the main themes of this movie is hope but also what lack of hope can do to people. What if this world without children which we see in this film means a world without a future or not seeing it as a good thing.

      There are a ton of symbolism in this movie that has to do with cultural, religious, political and historical things; which come together to show us the different messages. The Background of the film is not to be overlooked either, cause it’s also narrating the story in a subtle way. There’s also a lot of artwork Easter eggs in the background, like the Pig from Pink Floyd’s album (rock band) and references to La Pieta (sculpture) throughout the film. Children of Men is one of the few films in which the Protagonist goes from Protagonist to minor character, and back again. It’s a film which you need to watch various times to truly understand the messages being shown. It’s what makes the film so great and enjoyable with great replay value. The long takes and the camera works repeatedly becoming preoccupied with what goes on in the background.

      We see a world which is not so different from our own in its’ moods, political climate, and issues. This world is a reflection of humanity as it is now. It’s fascinating how it shows how different individuals deal with the situation. Some turn to violence, some turn to religion and some just go on as if nothing wrong is happening around them. Theo standout as one of those people who is disengaged( someone who has lost all hopes on humanity). He questions the point of being rich and working towards something, it more like he believes its too late for any change at that point in time. But he doesn’t fight for a change, that’s until he finds something worth fighting for, in that case, the baby(which could symbolic hope, the future).

Digital Humanities Projects

B. Melissa E. Santiago


Most projects in digital humanities begin as a digital archive, creating a collection of documents that are digitized. In “What We Think We Will Build and What We Build in Digital Humanities” by William G. Thomas we learn that the work we make “is not the achievement of one’s desire: it is the shadow of that desire.” according to McGann. In that article we can see how someone else work is used to help understand a problem or even solve it. Look at how William G. borrowed a phrase from Herman Melville and Moby Dick. Two statements that stood out to me were “McGann’s premise might be restated: if you have produced what you thought you would, perhaps you’ve not created anything really; if a digital project becomes what was specified it might not be a digital humanities work.” and “What we think we will build and what we build are not the same, but we can and should celebrate and inquire into the difference.”

From the readings and the video we had to study for week three, I learned that digital humanities projects don’t only show some form of information, but they also bring people of all ethnicities together as one. According to William G.  digital humanities projects are often characterized as collaborative. In digital humanities, groups are made, and they make the projects.


Digital humanities projects have brought about great relationships among Caribbean people, this can be seen in “Review of The Caribbean Memory Project “by Peter Hudson. According to Peter Hudson On the homepage of CMP, you can find, the “Tell Your Story” tab links to two pages: “Pass it On!” and “Tell Me, Nah!” The former invites written testimony on events and themes in Caribbean life and history. (a drop-down menu offers options for everything from the 1983 Grenada Revolution to “Embarrassing Moments”), while the latter leads to an audio archive, allowing visitors to the site to anonymously record ninety-second reminiscences, songs, poems, jokes, and anecdotes about the region (longer recordings produced elsewhere can also be uploaded to the site). This project not only helps share one’s history but to learn from others about their own and owns as well. Like Martin Luther King said We are not makers of history, we are made by history.” In this project history from various  Caribbean islands were shared and studied by numerous individuals who came together for the love of history and digital humanities (to protect their history).

Technology as a Tool

B.Melissa Santiago

Technology can be good if we use it as a tool. But how can we make good use of a tool if we don’t know all it functions, how it’s made and where it comes from.


“Analysis of DH Projects” teaches us that all digital projects have certain structural features in common and have produced HTML as their final format. HTML is hypertext markup language, according to Miriam Posner it is used to customize the way a site looks. HTML is a language understood by individuals who study technology or have a great interest in that field. Though understanding such language may seems easy for a computer science student ; for someone like me who hasn’t paid much attention to this part of technology it may be quite difficult. That’s where the culture of technology has made reading, writing and thinking more challenging for individuals who don’t associate with creating websites or have little to no knowledge about programming.


Trevor Owen’s, ” Please Write It Down” suggests that reflective designers should share the artefacts and documents created during the process of designing. That is so because it would help them become better designers as well as help others learn to become designers. I would agree with Trevor Owen because, if normal individual such as myself can have access to such artifacts and documents i would have a better understanding of the process designers go through to create their work and I might just be able to use it as a guide to create mines.


We should pay more attention to what technology truly is and what it has to offer either than social media and search engines such as Google. It can be use for many things such as creating a historical 3D model like the one seen in Miriam Posner’s “How did they make that?”. We see a variety of digital programs in which technology is used as the tool it’s meant to be. Take “The Digital Scholarly Edition : The Willa Cather Archie” as an example, it’s used as a digital archive for Willa Cather’s writings.

Do you consider technology to be a tool or is it just your digital playground?

Digital Humanities



By B. Melissa Encarnacion

According to Google dictionary, Digital Humanities is defined as an academic field concerned with the application of computational tools and methods to traditional humanities disciplines such as literature, history, and philosophy. From what I have grasp from my previous readings, Digital Humanities to me is the solving of problems in humanities and social science with modern computational methods. I encountered some difficulties when it came to understanding Elijah Meeks’ video on YouTube. That might have just been because of his choice of words or it simply not fitting my learning style which is more of a traditional one.

The digital world has many benefits but one that stands out to me is online learning. Online learning offers individuals a variety of new skills and “massive” learning opportunities according to Sean Michael and Jesse Stommel’s article. I understood that this field of digital humanities is not well explored but that it aim is to educate individuals everywhere no matter what their background may be. One of the first rights discussed in their article was the right to access which states that everyone has the right to learn stood out from the rest for me. That is so because often in a classroom setting students are neglected because of who they are or where they come from. As so one who has found myself in such situation i would love to participate in this kind of learning society.I learned that civility is a principle of online learning; though online learning doesn’t consist of visual interaction as a classroom setting would students should be encouraged to interact with each other. That is good since this generation is being more and more antisocial as time processes.

While reading Joshua Adam’s article i learned that I shouldn’t just take the first pieces of information i see in Google. Since that information might not be related to what I’m suppose to be looking for and is just place there as a marketing strategy. Joshua clearly states that, and i quote we need to think about how digital representation of marginalized groups is increasingly being dictated by powerful and influential companies. As someone who is always researching on historical events and ancient history, this is mind-boggling.

I look forward to !earning more about digital humanities and the aspects of online learning. Thanks to the two articles mentioned I’ve become more appreciative of the online learning culture and the opportunities which the digital world has to offer to any and everyone who is willing to pursue them.