Carisealand Project Proposal

Serena Maxwell

From my broad project topic, the economic and political impacts of climate change on the community, I have chosen to focus on the area of the topic, how has the increase in intensity and frequency of natural disasters due to climate change, affected the eco-tourism industry in Dominica.
At my digital humanities class , I was introduced to a five categories of research inquiry which will be utilized throughout this research project. Firstly, with definition, the meaning of certain terms can be argued. With definition arguments the way in which terms are defined are discussed whereby the classification of certain groups of items, individuals, and so forth, are outlined. In my research I intend to clearly outline the definition of the relevant terms, such as ‘eco-tourism’, by explaining what characterizes the country as an eco-tourism destination. Additionally, using cause and effect analysis, I intend to explore the causes of certain climate phenomena as well as their implications on the tourism product in Dominica. Added to this the level of value placed on these natural resources will be investigated along with the necessary actions which can be undertaken to minimize the negative effects of climate change on our tourism industry.
In order to achieve this goal of making our eco-tourism industry resilient to the effects of climate change, certain policies and actions have to be put in place. However, in order to ensure its effectiveness the relevant individuals and/or organizations have to initiate and ensure that these policies are kept. As a result, I will be investigating the jurisdiction in which the responsibility of undertaking such policies lies.
After taking these factors into consideration I have revised my initial questions to incorporate the types of research arguments. Some of my new questions include,’ what categorizes Dominica as an eco-tourism destination?’, ‘What are the benefits of eco-tourism to the island?’, ‘How does the topography of Dominica make it susceptible to the increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters caused by climate change?’ As well as this I will research on questions such as ‘how many individuals are engaged in the tourism sector either directly or indirectly?’ , ‘what policies can be put in place to minimize the damage suffered by the tourism industry?, and ‘which organizations/ individuals are responsible for implementing these policies?’
Dominica promotes itself as a prime eco-tourism destination in the Caribbean and this sector contributes significantly to country’s economy. The tourism industry in Dominica provides jobs for numerous individuals within various communities such as craft making, taxi driving as well as those employed in the food establishment. Therefore, as climate change severely impacts the island of Dominica , it is of paramount importance that we educate ourselves on how it affects us and what tools we can arm ourselves with to combat this issue and secure the livelihoods of those employed in this sector. In order to complete this project I intend to use mapping software which will enable me to create a visual representation of Dominica identifying the tourist sites as well as a topographical map showing how the terrain of Dominica is linked to its vulnerability to natural disasters caused by climate change.

Will Dominica win this race?

BY: Quisha Pascal

From reading this article, “This Tiny Country Says it can Beat Climate Change” the question that comes to mind, is Dominica going to win this race? A race against time, natural sources, natural disasters, and climate change. Hurricane Maria devastated the beautiful island on the night of September 17th, 2017. From trees to roads, to bridges, to houses were totally destroyed by the raging winds and rains. Almost two years later and we are still suffering. People lost their houses, electricity was lost, and running water was gone. After Hurricane Maria devastated Dominica in September of 2017, Prime Minister Dr. Roosevelt Skerrit, pledged to rebuild the island into the world’s first “fully climate-resilient” nation. Mr. Skerrit said that “We are resilient people”. And that was the mantra for the entire island even to this day almost two years later. But are we really resilient?

Climate change, according to www.science.org.au,  is a change in the pattern of weather, and related changes in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, occurring over time scales of decades or longer. Climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system that persists for several decades or longer. Resilience is the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties as stated on en.oxforddictionaries.com.

However, are we rebuilding resiliently? Foreign advisers claim that we are rebuilding homes using the same standards as before the hurricane. The electricity and telecom companies, Domlec and Flow and Digicel respectively say it’s too expensive to shield their entire networks against Category 5 storms. Digicel, which lost 21 of its cell towers in Maria, is building back just the three that handle the most traffic to withstand another Category 5 storm. Bertilia McKenzie, managing director of Domlec, the island’s sole utility, which is owned by the Canadian firm Emera Inc., said the same constraints apply to rebuild the country’s electricity sector. Ideally, she said, the company would put all its wires underground. “You know the cost of that?” McKenzie said. The answer is $1.3 billion—about $17,000 per resident.

With all these stated we can clearly see that Hurricane proofing is very expensive. Maria inflicted $1.3 billion in damage. The resilience plans are sweeping in replacing the buildings and bridges damaged by Maria with hurricane-proof versions, building more and higher seawalls, creating sheltered harbors and higher riverbanks, replacing bananas with hurricane-resistant crops, constructing geothermal power plants, burying electrical wires, and even relocating entire towns. The Government was relocated the village Petite Savanne. With all these resilient plans the question is still asked, Will Dominica win this race? Can we finish this race before the next Hurricane season? Do we have time?

Climate Signs…

By Rennick Stevens

When I was 5 I wanted to be a fireman like my dad. But as I crew older Being a fireman was not so much as an interest for me. Just so, Emily Raboteau’s son moved from one interesting to another. He was once fascinated and loved train, but he entered an American Museum of natural history. Their he love for trains turned to a passion for violent weather. There was a special exhibition called “Nature’s Furry”.

This reading portrayed that we should take more interest in the things happening around us in nature. The author’s son was just a kindergartner, and he took an interest into knowing more about the violent weather. He even cut the line to erupt a virtual volcano at the exhibition. Ever wonder to yourself why these the difference in wind speed between a category 4 and a category 5 hurricane, or why is it that the eye of a storm or tornado is the calmest parts. Perhaps that we should pay more attention to these things. These catastrophic events are real, and are happening more frequently. Take for instance, hurricane Maria a perfect example this scenario.

The environment we live in is for us, the least we can do be considerate. Some of the events that occur are as a result of us human activities. We should be mind of the things that we do directly impact our earth that intern cause these violent weathers to terrorize and destroy our homes, lively-hood and life when they decide to past. We tend to treat things as, “we have time the future is still to come”, but as Martin Luther preached, ” We are now faced with the fact, my friends, that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now”. There are many studies that have been conducted world wide of the effects of climate change. We may worry about our future generation, but our future is already here.

Climate change is really at work, for all the changes happening to weather patterns, the melting of ice glaciers, increase in heat waves from the sun hitting the earth. Its a wide diverse topic if we are to sit and deal with this issue as it presents it’s self to us. We as digital humanities partners, we are to take an interest and educate our friends, family, co-workers, neighbor. Raise the awareness of Climate change at work. The reading also mentioned that Climate Denial Kills. This can be achieved by doing things such as efforts in reducing or completely getting rid of emission of carbon into the atmosphere, think of the many people who currently being affected by climate change. There are so much more people that will get hurt or be affected by this change. Think water scarcity, think of food shortage, think of of a downhill turn for our future generation.

Think Climate Change….Think Sustainable Development.

“Too Late?”

by Kieron Clunes

It’s around 1:30pm as I wake from my unscheduled Saturday nap. I give of a sigh of uneasiness as I sit up on the edge of my bed, reaching for a towel to lightly dab of the few beads of sweat that have made their selves present during my state of rest. “It’s extremely hot today”, I thought to myself as I stood up to productively claim the rest of my afternoon. The days are in fact hot, and they’re only getting hotter.

According to an ongoing analysis being conducted by professionals at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), since the year 1880 the average global temperature of Earth has rose by roughly 0.8° Celsius or 1.4° Fahrenheit. According to an article written by Emily Raboteau called Climate Signs, the average global temperature is expected to rise by a staggering 4° Celsius by the end of the century. That number however, is only accurate if we continue to release excess amount of carbon emissions into the atmosphere that we are currently releasing. If this number does in fact become a reality, we are looking at a drastic increase in the number of heat related deaths worldwide, increased flooding, drought, a lack in food and water security worldwide, a rise in sea level and an increase in hurricane strengths which are known to rise annual mortality rates by the hundreds.

But are we already too late? According to an article written by Chris Mooney, statistics show that the largest glacier in East Antarctica is slowing melting and adding roughly 80 billion tons of mass into our ocean per year.  Does this bring up the argument that the global temperature of earth is already too high to avoid rising sea levels? Our major coastal cities are already suffering from catastrophic flooding in times of natural disasters which is an entire consequence on its own. At this very moment, the only question on my mind is, “is all this reversible or are have we already dug our own graves?”.

At this very moment in human history, it is sad to say that the damage we have done to earth is “abrupt and irreversible”, according to the IPCC. We have long passed the tipping point of carbon dioxide emission and we have now left a permanent mark on planet earth. However, that doesn’t mean that all hope is lost. Our current conditions can grow into much larger problems which can lead to the inevitable extinction of the human race. However, if we someway manage to get every human being on the same page, that is, to get everybody to acknowledge that climate change and global warming is a real thing and that we must act fast to limit the consequences of our actions, we can slow down or even completely shut down the rising temperature of planet earth. Through the communication of this idea through art, social media and government funded campaigns, it is possible to get the mass majority of the population on the initiative to protect earth and mankind.

CHILDREN OF MEN

By Tracey Daway

The film “Children of Men” was released in September 22, 2006.  Aside from the fact that it was the financial flop, nothing else about the film was a disappointment.  The film takes place in England in the year 2027, 18 years after a worldwide infertility epidemic has made human reproduction impossible. This no doubt led to global unrest and a refugee epidemic in Britain, which also happens to be the one of the last functioning governments.  In response to the recent terrorism and uprising the United Kingdom has become an authoritarian regime.

In life, at times to see the bigger picture we must retrace our steps, look back and break down things from the end to start.  At the end of the film, Theo (Clive Owen) is seen leaving on a boat with Kee (Clare-Hope Ashitey), he reveals to her that he is shot and has been bleeding out for an unknown amount of time; clearly he is going to die.  Throughout the film he has been headstrong and hopeful and resilient in spite of everything going on around him. He was a symbol of perseverance, it can be said that he represented the hidden hopes of the people, the fear and rebellious outward nature tucked away their true feelings for their global situation.  However, the significance of the hopeful Theo about to die at the end, sort of seals the newborn’s fate, the baby will live on be the next symbol of hope in a hopeless world. All is not lost.

Alfonso Cuaron, the Director of the film employs his habit of long shots in this film, it gives a sense of heightened realism. This makes it easier for viewers to connect to the scenes an feel the emotions conveyed, the anguish of the people and the confusion and misery.

Also, it’s important to note that an underlying subtexts in this movie is religion, it is not clear to me whether it is pro or anti religion but there are religious themes.  Faith was a key factor in the activism Theo and Julian had a part in during their youth. The Bible contains a list of stories about people needing salvation; Noah and the Flood, Moses freeing the Jews, Jesus dying for humanity to save us from the burden of our sins; we can parallel this to “Children of men”.  The world requires redemption yet again, as women have become infertile and society is run by a dour authoritarian regime. In the beginning we meet Theo, he is cynical and apathetic, like many others he has becomes a product of the current society he dwells in. Theo’s name is important, it is Greek in origin and translates loosely to “relating to God or deities,” but he seems to be just the opposite of this when we first meet him.  Hopeless, weak, feeble and fearful running and cringing from violence. However, as the movie goes on his character develops quite a bit to where we see him finding himself and his strength when he becomes responsible for getting pregnant Kee safely Tomorrow. Kee’s name is ironic because she turns out to be the ‘key’ to humanity’s survival. When Theo asks who is the father of Kee’s child, she at first jokes that she is a virgin, but then answers that she isn’t sure who the father is. While this is a reference to promiscuity, it also recalls Jesus, who had an unknown and unearthly Father.  In this scene, Theo plays the protecting Joseph to Kee’s Mary, with that unborn child being a new Jesus, the savior of the human race.

DIGITAL HUMANITIES PROJECTS

By Tracey Daway

Through this course, the what and how of the work digital humanists do are always being mentioned.  The purpose of the work humanists do is usually with the aim of accomplishing something. The reaction that ended with the creation of a project, an urge, a want, an idea or deep inspiration.  In the article, “What we think we build” by William G. Thomas, he makes reference to scholar Jerome McGann – “ what we think we will build and what we build are often quite different, and unexpectedly so. Our minds are such powerful things, limitless in a multitude of ways, although perfection is unattainable in the physical world, that isn’t the same for our minds.  Where we can wake up one day and fly to the top of the Eiffel Tower to find unicorns and fairies, then teleport to the top of Mount Everest and end the day watching the sunset; this could be a perfect day in our mind. However, what we think, many times is not always possible nor does it abide by the laws of reality. Translating boundless uninhibited works of the mind into this physical world will encounter many obstacles, issues and road blocks. As hard as one may try, what we envision our final project as humanists to be will only ever be the tip of the iceberg, the shadow to a mountain.  McGann’s proposition is that, if you have produced what you visualised, maybe you haven’t quite ‘created’ anything yet. As projects progress, there are revelations, additions, changes and revisions constantly being made. It is difficult to say with confidence, but where digital humanist are concerned with project production we will always fall short in one way or another. There’s always more to be done but never enough time, if time was infinite so would be our projects and there would be no end product, no ‘creation’. Endings come before beginnings and so what we think won’t measure up to what we build.  Will there always be pieces and fragments lost in the translation?

Will Dominca reach its goal?

By Dinelle Dailey

How will the island of Dominica, led by Honorable Roosevelt Skerrit, hold its head high while aiming to become the first climate resilient country in the world, despite ravages of Hurricane Maria of 2017? This question encompasses the general perspective the author tries to bring about in the article, “This Tiny Country Says It Can Beat Climate Change”. The author not only gives an account of the immediate tragic aftermath of Hurricane Maria but also illustrates an account of life a few months done the line.

Resilience, the keyword which summarizes the idea Honorable Roosevelt Skerrit presented when addressing the nation shortly after the hurricane was the talk of the town and approximately a year and six months later, it still is. Why does resilience summarize the idea brought across and not defines it? Resilience, according to Cambridge dictionary is defined as “the quality of being able to return quickly to a previous good condition after problems”. Does the definition of ‘resilience’ do justice to the Prime Minister’s dream for the island of Dominica? Not at all. Instead he aimed for the island, with half of its buildings destroyed, no electricity, no running water, and little to no forms of communication, to not just recover by building back what was already there, but instead, build back with a difference to make the island a force to be reckoned in preparation for the upcoming hurricane season and climate change. Building back with a difference meant for the structure of building to change, for the materials being used to be upgraded, for the financial system of the country to take a turn into a more prosperous direction, for roofs to be built in such a way that hurricane force winds would struggle to remove one roof instead of succeeding in removing five thousand roofs. With all this being said, the aim was not only to be resilient but also be the first resilient country in the world.

The only problem at that moment, how. How was an island with a population of 75,000 people, an economy based on the exportation of crops and tourism, to be the first climate resilient country of the world? According to the article, help wasn’t too far from reach as many individuals and organizations were intrigued by the level of motivation the islanders had despite being in a position where a resilient country should sound like a ridiculous idea. Bill Clinton, the World Bank, and International Monetary Fund just to name a few, were not hesitant to help this island reach to where it aimed to. Little did we know, that a few months down the line, this is exactly what was beginning to happen. Houses began building, some with concrete roofs to replace what was lost and others with safer galvanized roofs as they found the concrete roofs unattractive.

According to the article, the government was trying to help the country be better off, however, does that mean all the people were pleased? Most certainly not. That didn’t stop the Prime Minister and his government from reaching to where they wanted to be.

Resiliency

By Abiyomhi Joseph

All the articles describe and illustrate accurately the effect and damaged caused by Climate Change; the one which I will focus on is one of those which expound on hurricane Maria. This was important as it gave us a present-day example; this hurricane gave us (Dominicans) and the entire world a rude awakening. Maria is a prime example that climate change is real and apparent in every way possible, causing pain and damage in all possible ways.  The emotional damage especially, caused by viewing a site which once comforted you become completely foreign to you. The complete and utter ease in which Maria destroyed, dismantled and broke our country both demographically and geographically must and will for sure have an effect on not only how we react to Climate Change but capture the attention of the superpowers worldwide.

Let us describe “This Tiny Country Says it can Beat Climate Change’ by Christopher Flavelle. As many may ask, is it really possible to become completely climate resilient or is it possible to be climate resilient in an ever changing climate? There are no clear cut answers to these questions but it is factual that as climate is changing we must have a positive effect, we must try our best to adapt and be innovative when it comes to development and growth in every way. As we see in this article Dominica has taken the initiative to become the first climate resilient country, to be the forerunner in an indeed tough but necessary race. As the article states ‘Hurricane Maria turned Dominica into a foreign-funded laboratory for storm proofing an entire nation.’, it is true that Dominica has become a laboratory as a lot of testing of: new materials, housing styles, housing structures among many other building techniques have been introduced to prepare for a changing climate.

To become Climate Resilient!

In addition, we must realize that this is not an easy task to achieve, this surely would not come without the continuous effort and investment of leaders, ‘superpowers’ all over the world. As stated in the article the management of these projects are very strenuous and eventful which create a heavy anchor on an already tough swim up for the government. It may seem that there is little to has been done but it is also true that a lot is to be done. Dominica has seen a tough 2 years after hurricane Maria, though it has been so Dominicans are known for being resilient and as we continue to be it is a lesson to all nations of the world. In adversity we must push despite how hard the fight may be, we MUST win the battle against Climate Change.

A World Without a Future

 By Melissa Santiago

 What will the end of the world look like? Is it going to be as shabby and disturbing as it is in ‘Children of Men’? Children of Men is a dystopian thriller base on the future of humanity, directed by Alfonso Cuaron: a convincing realization of London in the year 2027 in which terrorist bombs have become a norm.

     Children of Men has become one of my favorite Post Apocalyptic films with that depressed gray smokey color palette. The opening scene alone gives the views the perfect set up when in a crowded cafe people watch this news report about the youngest person on the planet dying. One of the main themes of this movie is hope but also what lack of hope can do to people. What if this world without children which we see in this film means a world without a future or not seeing it as a good thing.

      There are a ton of symbolism in this movie that has to do with cultural, religious, political and historical things; which come together to show us the different messages. The Background of the film is not to be overlooked either, cause it’s also narrating the story in a subtle way. There’s also a lot of artwork Easter eggs in the background, like the Pig from Pink Floyd’s album (rock band) and references to La Pieta (sculpture) throughout the film. Children of Men is one of the few films in which the Protagonist goes from Protagonist to minor character, and back again. It’s a film which you need to watch various times to truly understand the messages being shown. It’s what makes the film so great and enjoyable with great replay value. The long takes and the camera works repeatedly becoming preoccupied with what goes on in the background.

      We see a world which is not so different from our own in its’ moods, political climate, and issues. This world is a reflection of humanity as it is now. It’s fascinating how it shows how different individuals deal with the situation. Some turn to violence, some turn to religion and some just go on as if nothing wrong is happening around them. Theo standout as one of those people who is disengaged( someone who has lost all hopes on humanity). He questions the point of being rich and working towards something, it more like he believes its too late for any change at that point in time. But he doesn’t fight for a change, that’s until he finds something worth fighting for, in that case, the baby(which could symbolic hope, the future).

Tiny but mighty

By Jerelle O’Brien

Tiny but mighty

‘This Tiny Country Says It Can Beat Climate Change’

After the passage of Hurricane Maria in Dominica in September 2017, the prime minister pledges to make Dominica the first climate resilient country. In light of this, Dominica became a funded experiment; many people have donated funds in support of and to aid this cause.

In the prime minister’s interview for his plan, he basically explained where his intent was to compromise and how he intended to make the country climate resilient.

What is climate resilience?

Climate  resilience means strengthening the ability of human and non-human systems to withstand and respond to changes in the earth’s climate.

Can this really be achieved in this little island? Even with all the funding and engineering aid….

Considering the fact that with the effects of climate change and the growing threat of natural disasters, how is it possible to rebuild time and time again?

Eventually, people will feel hopelessness.

With the attempt to achieve a climate resilient nation, there should also be the highlights of the effects of climate change and the entire global population should be on board with achieving the sustainable development goals in order to ensure that everywhere can be climate resilient.

By this I mean that, the use of plastics, burning, use of non biodegradable materials should be banned worldwide…

Along with stopping the production.

What’s the use say we are building a resilient nation, yet the world is still crumbling around and what they are doing will continue to affect and have the biggest impact on the little countries who have the smallest contributions but are trying their hardest to beat climate change?

So far, a step in the right direction has been taken as of January 2019, where a ban was passed on the importation of plastics and non biodegradable Styrofoam into the country. In light of this, supermarkets, as well as restaurants have since stopped the use of these as it is in low abundance in the country. Climate change is real, it is relevant and action needs to be taken seriously not only as a country, but as a global collective.  

I believe with the proper planning, funding and support from the people in around the country, this tiny but might country can defeat climate change. The passage of that hurricane did not break so many, and our people can rebuild despite all the odds, by uniting our forces, we can achieve a climate resilient nation.